What Is Cryptocurrency and How Does It Work?

A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual money that is protected by encryption, making counterfeiting and double-spending practically impossible. Many cryptocurrencies are built on blockchain technology, which is a distributed ledger enforced by a global network of computers. Cryptocurrencies are distinguished by the fact that they are not issued by any central authority, making them potentially impervious to government intervention or manipulation.
Cryptocurrencies: An Introduction

Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual currencies that rely on cryptography technologies to function. They make it possible to make safe online payments without the involvement of third-party payment processors. Various encryption methods and cryptographic approaches, such as elliptical curve encryption, public-private key pairs, and hashing functions, are referred to as “crypto.”

Cryptocurrencies may either be mined or bought on cryptocurrency exchanges. Cryptocurrency purchases are not permitted on all ecommerce sites. In reality, even famous cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are seldom utilized for retail purchases. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, have become popular as trading tools because to their increasing value. They are also utilized for cross-border transfers to a limited degree.


Blockchain technology is at the heart of Bitcoin’s and other cryptocurrencies’ attractiveness and usefulness. Blockchain is, as its name implies, a collection of interconnected blocks or an online ledger. Each block comprises a collection of transactions that each network member has independently validated. Every new block must be validated by each node before being confirmed, making forging transaction histories very difficult. 1The contents of an online ledger must be agreed upon by the whole network of a single node, or computer, that keeps a copy of the ledger.

According to experts, blockchain technology may benefit a variety of sectors and activities, including supply chain management and online voting and crowdfunding. JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPM) and other financial institutions are experimenting with blockchain technology to reduce transaction costs by simplifying payment processing. 2

Cryptocurrency Types

The most well-known and valued cryptocurrency is Bitcoin. It was conceived and presented to the public in 2008 by an unidentified individual named Satoshi Nakamoto via a white paper. Thousands of cryptocurrencies are now available on the market.

Every cryptocurrency claims to have a unique purpose and specification. Ethereum’s ether, for example, is marketed as gas for the underlying smart contract platform. Banks utilize Ripple’s XRP to ease transfers across various locations.

The most commonly traded and covered cryptocurrency is Bitcoin, which was first made accessible to the public in 2009. There were around 18.8 million bitcoins in circulation as of November 2021, with a total market worth of roughly $1.2 trillion. There will only be 21 million bitcoins ever created. 3

Following Bitcoin’s breakthrough, a slew of other cryptocurrencies known as “altcoins” have emerged. Some are Bitcoin clones or forks, while others are brand-new currencies created from the ground up. Solana, Litecoin, Ethereum, Cardano, and EOS are among them. By November 2021, the entire value of all cryptocurrencies in existence had surpassed $2.1 trillion, with Bitcoin accounting for around 41% of that total. 4

Is it Legal to Use Cryptocurrencies?

The government or monetary authorities provide fiat currencies their power as means of exchange. The Federal Reserve, for example, backstopped each $1 note.

Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, are not backed by any government or corporate entity. As a result, establishing their legal standing in many financial countries throughout the globe has proven problematic. The fact that cryptocurrencies have mostly operated outside of the current financial infrastructure doesn’t help things. Cryptocurrencies’ legal status has ramifications for their usage in regular transactions and trade. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) suggested in June 2019 that cryptocurrency wire transactions be subject to the provisions of its Travel Rule, which mandates anti-money laundering compliance. 5

El Salvador was the first nation in the world to accept Bitcoin as legal money for monetary transactions as of December 2021. Cryptocurrency legislation in the rest of the world differs by jurisdiction.

The Payment Services Act of Japan declares Bitcoin to be legal property.

6 Customers’ personal information and wire transfer data must be collected by cryptocurrency exchanges functioning in the nation. Within its boundaries, China has outlawed cryptocurrency trades and mining. In December, it was claimed that India was working on a cryptocurrency architecture. 7

In the European Union, cryptocurrencies are legal. Cryptocurrency derivatives and other products will need to be classified as “financial instruments.” The European Commission published the Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA) regulation in June 2021, which defines regulatory protections and requirements for organizations or suppliers who provide financial services utilizing cryptocurrency. 8 Crypto derivatives such as Bitcoin futures are accessible on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange in the United States, the world’s largest and most sophisticated financial exchange. Bitcoin and Ethereum, according to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), are not securities.


Despite the fact that cryptocurrencies are considered a form of money, the IRS classifies them as a financial asset or property. And, like with most other assets, the government wants a portion of the earnings if you sell or trade cryptocurrencies and make a profit. The US Department of the Treasury published a proposal on May 20, 2021, that would compel taxpayers to record each bitcoin transaction of $10,000 or more to the IRS. 9 The length of time the person held the cryptocurrency determines whether the earnings are taxed as capital gains or regular income by the IRS. 10

Cryptocurrency’s Advantages and Disadvantages

Cryptocurrencies were created with the goal of revolutionizing the financial system. However, like with every revolution, there are compromises to be made. There are significant gaps between the theoretical ideal of a decentralized system with cryptocurrencies and its actual application at the present level of development for cryptocurrencies.

The following are some of the benefits and drawbacks of cryptocurrencies.


• Cryptocurrencies are a new, decentralized money paradigm. To enforce trust and regulate transactions between two participants, centralized middlemen like as banks and monetary organizations are not required in this system. As a result, a system based on cryptocurrencies reduces the risk of a single point of failure, such as a huge bank, triggering a global crisis, such to the one generated in 2008 by the collapse of institutions in the United States.

• Cryptocurrencies promise to make it simpler to move payments between two parties without the need of a trusted third party such as a bank or credit card firm. The use of public and private keys, as well as other incentive schemes such as proof of labor and proof of stake, secures such decentralized transfers.11

• Compared to traditional money transfers, bitcoin transfers between two transacting parties are quicker since they do not employ third-party middlemen. Flash loans are a nice illustration of decentralized transfers in decentralized finance. These loans, which are not backed by security, may be completed in seconds and are employed in trading. 12

• Investing in cryptocurrencies may be profitable. Over the last decade, the value of cryptocurrency markets has surged, reaching over $2 trillion at one time. Bitcoin was worth more over $862 billion on crypto marketplaces on December 20, 2021. 13

• One of cryptocurrency’s most notable use cases is the remittance industry. Currently, cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin are used as intermediary currencies to facilitate cross-border money transactions. As a result, a fiat money is changed to Bitcoin (or another cryptocurrency), then sent across borders and converted back to the target fiat currency. This approach simplifies and reduces the cost of money transfers.


• Despite the fact that they pretend to be anonymous, cryptocurrencies are essentially pseudonymous. They create a digital trail that may be deciphered by entities like the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). This gives governments and federal agencies the ability to trace the financial activities of regular persons. 14

• Criminals are increasingly using cryptocurrency for undesirable operations such as money laundering and unlawful transactions. The instance of Dread Pirate Roberts, who managed a dark web bazaar for drug sales, is well-known. Cryptocurrencies have also grown popular among hackers who use them to spread malware. 15

• Cryptocurrencies are supposed to be decentralized, with their value spread between several parties on a blockchain. In actuality, there is a lot of power in the hands of a few people. According to an MIT analysis, just 11,000 investors owned nearly 45 percent of Bitcoin’s soaring value. 16

• One of the conceits of cryptocurrencies is that anybody with a computer and an Internet connection may mine them. Mining popular cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, needs a lot of energy, often as much as whole nations. Mining has been concentrated among huge corporations with revenues in the billions of dollars due to high energy prices and the unpredictability of the industry. According to an MIT research, 10% of miners are responsible for 90% of the country’s mining capacity. 16

• While cryptocurrency blockchains are very secure, other crypto repositories such as exchanges and wallets are vulnerable to hacking. Over the years, several cryptocurrency exchanges and wallets have been hacked, resulting in the theft of millions of dollars worth of “coins.” 17

• Price volatility affects cryptocurrencies traded on public exchanges. Bitcoin’s value has risen and fallen rapidly, reaching a peak of $17,738 in December 2017 before plummeting below $7,575 in the following months. 3 As a result, some economists see cryptocurrencies as a passing fad or speculative bubble.

How to Purchase Cryptocurrencies

You may be wondering how to securely purchase cryptocurrency. Typically, there are three processes required. These are the following:

The first step is to choose a platform.

Step 1:  is to choose a platform to work with. In general, you have the option of using a regular broker or a cryptocurrency exchange:

• Conventional brokers. These are online brokers that allow you to purchase and sell cryptocurrencies as well as other financial assets such as stocks, bonds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). These platforms are known for having reduced trading fees but fewer crypto features.

• Exchanges for cryptocurrencies. There are a variety of cryptocurrency exchanges to select from, each with its own set of cryptocurrencies, wallet storage choices, interest-bearing account options, and other features. Asset-based fees are charged by several exchanges.

Consider which cryptocurrencies are available, the fees they charge, their security features, storage and withdrawal choices, and any instructional materials when evaluating various platforms.

Step 2: Adding money to your account

After you’ve decided on a platform, you’ll need to fund your account before you can start trading. Although this varies by platform, most crypto exchanges enable users to buy crypto using fiat (government-issued) currencies such as the US Dollar, the British Pound, or the Euro using their debit or credit cards.

Credit card purchases of cryptocurrency are deemed dangerous, and some exchanges do not allow them. Crypto transactions are also not permitted by certain credit card providers. This is because cryptocurrencies are very volatile, and risking getting into debt — or perhaps paying hefty credit card transaction fees — for particular assets is not recommended.

ACH and wire transfers are also accepted by certain sites. The payment methods that are accepted and the time it takes to deposit or withdraw money vary each platform. Likewise, the time it takes for deposits to clear varies depending on the payment type.

Fees are an essential consideration. These costs might include transaction fees for deposits and withdrawals, as well as trading fees. Fees may vary depending on the payment method and platform, so do your homework ahead of time.

Step 3: Making a purchase

You may use the online or mobile interface of your broker or exchange to make an order. If you wish to acquire cryptocurrencies, go to “buy,” pick the order type, enter the number of coins you want to buy, and complete the order. Orders to “sell” follow the same procedure.

There are other methods to invest in cryptocurrency as well. PayPal, Cash App, and Venmo are examples of payment platforms that enable customers to purchase, trade, or store cryptocurrencies. In addition, the following investment vehicles are available:

• Bitcoin trusts: Shares in Bitcoin trusts may be purchased using a conventional brokerage account. Through the stock market, these vehicles provide regular investors with access to cryptocurrency.

• Bitcoin mutual funds: You may select between Bitcoin ETFs and Bitcoin mutual funds.

• Blockchain stocks or ETFs: Blockchain firms that specialize in the technology underpinning crypto and crypto transactions are another way to indirectly invest in crypto. Alternatively, you might invest in blockchain-related equities or exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

Your best selection will be determined by your investing objectives and risk tolerance.

What is the best way to keep cryptocurrency?

Once you’ve acquired bitcoin, you’ll need to keep it secure to avoid being hacked or stolen. Coins are often held in crypto wallets, which are physical hardware or online software that securely hold the private keys to your cryptocurrencies. Some exchanges provide wallet services, allowing you to keep your funds directly on the platform. However, not all exchanges or brokers will immediately give you with a wallet.

There are a variety of wallet providers from which to pick. The words “hot wallet” and “cold wallet” are used to describe two types of wallets:

• Hot wallet storage: “Hot wallets” refer to cryptocurrency storage that use internet software to safeguard your assets’ private keys.

• Cold wallet storage: Unlike hot wallets, cold wallets (also known as hardware wallets) store your private keys on offline electronic devices.

Is cryptocurrency a safe investment?

Blockchain technology is often used to create cryptocurrencies. The method transactions are recorded in “blocks” and time stamped is described by blockchain. It’s a lengthy, complicated procedure, but the end result is a secure digital record of bitcoin transactions that hackers can’t alter.

Transactions also need a two-factor authentication procedure. To begin a transaction, you may be requested to provide a login and password. Then you may be required to input an authentication code given to your personal mobile phone through text message.

While security measures are in place, this does not imply that cryptocurrencies are impenetrable to hackers. Several high-profile thefts have wreaked havoc on bitcoin startups. Coincheck was hacked for $534 million, and BitGrail was hacked for $195 million, making them two of the most expensive cryptocurrency attacks of 2018.

The value of virtual currencies, unlike government-backed money, is solely determined by supply and demand. This may lead to dramatic fluctuations in the market, resulting in substantial profits or losses for investors. Furthermore, compared to conventional financial instruments such as equities, bonds, and mutual funds, cryptocurrency investments are subject to significantly less governmental oversight.

Four precautions to take while investing in cryptocurrencies.

All investments, according to Consumer Reports, include risk, but some experts believe bitcoin is one of the riskier investing options available. If you’re thinking about investing in cryptocurrencies, these pointers may assist you in making informed decisions.

Research collaborations:

Learn about bitcoin exchanges before you invest. There are around 500 exchanges to select from, according to estimates. Before making a decision, do your homework, study reviews, and speak with more experienced investors.

Understand how to keep your digital cash safe:

You must store cryptocurrency if you purchase it. You may save it in a digital wallet or on an exchange. While there are several types of wallets, each has its own set of advantages, technological needs, and security features. You should research your storage options before investing, just as you would with exchanges.

Diversify your portfolio:

Diversification is essential to any successful investment plan, and this is especially true when it comes to cryptocurrencies. Don’t invest all of your money in Bitcoin simply because it’s a well-known name. There are dozens of possibilities, and it’s best to diversify your portfolio by investing in other currencies.

Prepare for turbulence:

Be aware that the cryptocurrency market is quite volatile, so expect ups and downs. Prices will fluctuate dramatically. Cryptocurrency may not be a good fit for you if your financial portfolio or mental health can’t manage it.

Cryptocurrency is now all the rage, but keep in mind that it is still in its infancy and is regarded extremely speculative. Be prepared for the hardships that come with investing in anything new. If you decide to join, do your homework beforehand and start with a little investment.

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